The Holocene extinction event eliminated many of the megafauna that, had they survived, might have become candidate species, and Diamond argues that the pattern of extinction is more severe on continents where animals that had no prior experience of humans were exposed to humans who already possessed advanced hunting techniques e. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. In the book, Diamond created a thesis arguing that geography gave certain civilizations and societies a big head-start and enabled them to eventually acquire the means and the technology to conquer or dominate others. Answered May 9, The rain forests of Panama, the deserts of northern Mexico, dry areas of Texas, the high mountains fencing off the US Pacific Coast all apparently restricted both the movement of people, crops and animals to regions conducive for the most optimum food production. Australia and North America suffered from a lack of useful animals due to extinction , probably by human hunting, shortly after the end of the Pleistocene , whilst the only domesticated animals in New Guinea came from the East Asian mainland during the Austronesian settlement some 4,—5, years ago. The presence of unfriendly and ideologically opposed states proximate to each other – has not helped protect principalities or states in Africa or India from outside invaders, for example.

Diamond also proposes geographical explanations for why western European societies, rather than other Eurasian powers such as China, have been the dominant colonizers, [2] [7] claiming Europe’s geography favored balkanization into smaller, closer, nation-states, bordered by natural barriers of mountains, rivers, and coastline. Such exchanges in the Andes, Alps, and Himalayas not only increased population densities in those areas, by providing people at all altitudes with a more balanced diet, but also promoted regional economic and political integration. However, a good portion of inventions and ideas will likely have flowed between competing states in a balkanized region. Still others, he says, “have been decimated, subjugated, and in some cases even exterminated by European colonialists. The combined effect of the increased population densities supported by agriculture, and of close human proximity to domesticated animals leading to animal diseases infecting humans, resulted in European societies acquiring a much richer collection of dangerous pathogens to which European people had acquired immunity through natural selection see the Black Death and other epidemics during a longer time than was the case for Native American hunter-gatherers and farmers. Europe’s many natural barriers allowed the development of competing nation-states. Retrieved January 2,


Diamond fails on both fronts.

jared diamonds thesis guns germs and steel

The people of the Andes apparently could not share resources with those further north, neither could the MesoAmericans from the denizens of the American south-west and south-east.

The Fertile Crescent region was a fragile environment ecologically and it soon became over-farmed and its carrying capacity for population became exceeded. The presence of unfriendly and ideologically opposed states proximate to each other – has not helped protect principalities or states in Africa or India from outside invaders, for example.

This is the sample of that particular thesis with this you can evaluate the answer of this particular question. Non-geographic factors include those factors subsumed under the term culture, other factors subsumed under the term history, and decisions by individual people. Remember me on this computer.

Book Summary: Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond

In his last book published inthe anthropologist and geographer James Morris Blaut criticized Guns, Germs, and Steelamong other reasons, for reviving the theory of environmental determinismand described Diamond as an example of a modern Eurocentric historian.

This is gunns fatalistic worldview and ignores the complexities and differences of human culture Department of the Interiorcomplained in a Journal of Libertarian Studies article that Guns, Germs, and Steel entirely neglects individual action, concentrating solely on the centralized state; fails to understand how societies form assessing that thesjs do not exist or form without a strong government ; and ignores uared economical institutions, such as monetary exchange that would allow societies to “rationally reckon scarcities and the value of actions required to replace what is depleted through human use”.

Aboriginal Australians and the Khoikhoi population were decimated by smallpox, measles, influenza and other diseases. Still others, he says, “have been decimated, subjugated, and in some cases even exterminated by European colonialists. Several examples of this can be seen diqmonds terms of the encroachment of industrial civilizations upon less developed and more traditional societies in various regions of the world. There is actually considerable climatic variation within a large area of east-west latitude and this includes the contrasts between the rainy verdure of western Europe and the continental extremes of central Gums Just an explanation such that smart people can read it and do the right things.


jared diamonds thesis guns germs and steel

For Scriven this appears to be composed of three steps or three criteria. Diamondd is as simple as that. Yet despite much of its arid climate there are regions where agriculture was conducive yet never became established.

Books by Jared Diamond. The Mughal Empire indeed subjugated richer and more socially advanced societies in India with its origin being from the pastoral nomadic zones of Central Asia. This gyns to migrations of people and resources westward into Europe which was more tolerant to intensive agriculture as a result of its rainier climate.

International Relations scholars Iver B. It must be noted that the book is well written and accessible, and raises a number of interesting points about the influence of geography and jarfd on historical events. Natural selection forced Eurasians to develop immunity to a wide range of pathogens.

Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond

If you had read only the introduction to the book, this question would be unnecessary. Jared Diamond’s Methodological Approach Diamond’s approach is to adopt the methodology used by scientists who specialise in the field of inferring facts from historical events.

Retrieved August 5, Answered Jan 24, The Experience of Kenya and Tanzania. Again, he doesn’t go into much detail and thus the claim seems like conjecture based on a set of naturalistic assumptions about human behaviour.

Guns, Germs, and Steel – Wikipedia

Norton in March An explanation based on diamonnds without any racist element in it. It adds a lot to the debate about whether it is possible for causality to be taken back to the beginning of human life on earth. Yet, while these are strong and defensible positions in themselves they are not the primary arguments of Diamond’s thesis. Retrieved May 3, The book follows this thesis through to the end, with various examples for all world continents.

jared diamonds thesis guns germs and steel